FDA pregnancy categories

Food and drug administration has assigned pregnancy categories in drug formulary as follows.  FDA pregnancy Category A Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters). FDA pregnancy Category B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. FDA pregnancy Category C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there…

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Types of mastectomy: Simple, Radical, Skin-sparing mastectomy

The surgical removal of breast as a part of breast cancer treatment is called mastectomy. This medical procedure is not only carried out to treat breast cancer, but also other conditions. These include gynecomastia, that is, growth of breast in men. In this article, we shall learn more about mastectomy and its implications. Types of Mastectomy As we have already understood, the surgical removal of whole breast is called as mastectomy. It is usually carried out on high-risk cancer patients. In some people, bilateral mastectomy is carried out, that is,…

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Menorrhagia: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Girls that reach puberty undergo menstruation every month. Menstruation is vaginal bleeding that occurs on an average of 28 days for 4-7 days. Also called as periods, this bleeding can occur anywhere between 20 to 45 days apart in different women. Sometimes, one suffers from abnormal uterine bleeding. One such type of abnormal uterine bleeding is menorrhagia. Let us learn more about this condition. What is Menorrhagia? One of the most common types of abnormal bleeding is menorrhagia. It is characterized by heavy, prolonged vaginal bleeding. It leads to passage…

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The Baby Blues: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Giving birth to a baby is no easy task. This is a challenging time for the mother, physically as well as emotionally. The event of birth triggers causes a circus of emotions within the mother. It leads to excitement, fear, anxiety, joy and many other feelings. It can also lead to depression in some mothers. This feeling of sadness, anger, depression is called as ‘baby blues’. What are Baby Blues? New moms often experience mood swings and crying spells after birth. Many women are confused after birth as the rush…

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Cervical dysplasia: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Dysplasia means abnormal development of organs or cells or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth and when such abnormalities appear in the inner lining of the cervix, the condition is defined as cervical dysplasia. It’s a precancerous condition, which can later lead to cancer if not treated early. Symptoms of Cervical dysplasia Cervical dysplasia doesn’t show up any symptoms. However, rarely there could be symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding, spotting post intercourse, genital warts and lower back pain. Causes of Cervical Dysplasia The primary cause behind developing this kind…

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Vaginitis: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Inflammation or infection by bacteria, yeast or viral agents of the vagina are called as vaginitis. This condition can also occur due to irritation of the vagina by chemicals, perfumes, creams as well as clothing. There are many other reasons for this irritating and itchy condition. Let us know more about vaginitis from the following paragraphs. Vaginitis overview Inflammation, itchiness as well as pain in the vagina is called as vaginits. When the vulva and the vagina, both are affected, it leads to a condition called vulvovaginitis. As mentioned above,…

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Cesarean Section

Pregnancy is risky period for both mother and baby. Even though mother and baby are doing fine all through the three trimesters, the delivery becomes a crucial point. If all goes well, the baby is delivered through normal vaginal route. However, in certain cases complications arise and one has no option but to go in for cesarean section and bring the baby into the world. In this section, we shall have a short outlook on cesarean section and answer some of the common questions arising in one’s mind. What is…

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Dysmenorrhea: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

One of the many woman-related health problems is dysmenorrhea. Almost all women suffer from dysmenorrhea at one point of their life. Although this is a common problem, it can be related to certain medical complications in some. Let us understand more on this subject in the following paragraphs. What is Dysmenorrhea? In medical terms, painful menstruation is called as dysmenorrhea. Cramps are experienced in the stomach and pelvic region during menses. However, one should note that this pain is not similar to the pain experienced during premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Dysmenorrhea…

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Ovarian Cysts: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Ovaries are an important part of a woman’s reproductive system. There are two ovaries situated on either side of the uterus. They produce eggs that pass down the Fallopian tube into the uterus. Here, the egg may be fertilized by a sperm. It is possible a small cyst develops in the ovary that may lead to irregular menstrual cycle. Let us learn more about these ovarian cysts from the following paragraphs. Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts Cysts are normally non-cancerous in nature and usually do not produce any symptoms. When they…

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Uterine Fibroids: Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment

Hysterectomy, a word many women dread hearing. This is a surgical procedure wherein the uterus is removed. Hysterectomies are usually performed to remove uterine fibroids. This condition is also known by other names such as uterine leiomyoma, fibromyoma, fibroleiomyoma. Let us learn more details about uterine fibroids from the following paragraphs. What are Uterine Fibroids? Uterine fibroid is a benign tumor that occurs within the myometrium of the uterus. The tumor occurs due to the abnormal growth of the normal cells uterine muscles. The tumor or fibroid is usually round…

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