Symptoms of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)

A blood sugar reading above 180 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is considered as high blood sugar. Early signs include: Increased thirst. Nausea and vomiting Headaches Drowsiness Trouble concentrating. Blurred vision. Frequent urination Fatigue Weight loss Ongoing high blood sugar may cause: Constipation Diarrhoea Vaginal and skin infections Slow-healing cuts and sores Vision problems Damage to your eyes, blood vessels, kidneys Erectile dysfunction        

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Symptoms of hypoglycemia – low blood sugar levels

Symptoms of hypoglycemia occur when their blood sugar is 70 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or lower. Each person has different low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) symptoms. If blood sugar levels become too low, signs and symptoms may include: An irregular heart beat Palpitations Nervousness Dizziness Fatigue Pale skin Shaking Anxiety Sweating Hunger Irritability Headache Difficulty sleeping Anxiety As hypoglycemia worsens, signs and symptoms may include: Confusion Poor coordination Numbness in mouth and tongue blurred vision Seizures Loss of consciousness (coma)

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Anti-Diabetic Drug

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that causes high blood sugar levels. This metabolic disorder occurs due to lack of insulin hormone or if the body cells do not respond to insulin produced. If left untreated it can lead to many complications, including diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and even death. Treatment of diabetes includes use of anti-diabetic drug. In this article, we shall learn about anti-diabetic drug and how it helps people with diabetes. Anti-Diabetic Drugs: Overview Anti-diabetic drugs help in controlling blood sugar levels in people suffering from diabetes.…

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Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

The pancreas function as endocrine glands as well as exocrine glands. It can produce enzymes such as insulin, glucagon and somatostatin as well as digestive enzymes.  The cells located on islets of Langerhans, that is, β cells produce insulin, α produce glucagon and  Δ cells produce somatostatin. Insulin plays an important role in regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It helps cells in the body absorb glucose from the blood. It is constantly released in some propotions to remove excess glucose from the blood. When the production of insulin fails,…

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Blood sugar tests

What are blood sugar tests? This test is used to measure the level of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main form of energy that the body needs to function and it is maintained within a narrow range by the body.  Unfortunately elevated glucose level of diabetes is a silent disease that can cause extensive damage if left untreated. Timely testing helps to catch the disease early and to keep it well-controlled. Why is it conducted? This is an important investigation as both high and low blood glucose levels…

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Diabetic retinopathy: Symptoms, risk factors and treatment

Introduction to diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications, which arises due to ‘long-term diabetes’. It causes damage to the blood vessels of light sensitive tissue behind the retina of the eye. Initially, diabetic retinopathy shows no symptoms apart from mild vision problems, but gradually can lead to blindness. Diabetic retinopathy affects people suffering from type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Epidemiology (Occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in different groups) World Health Organization estimates that 150 million people suffer from diabetes, worldwide and also suggests that the number…

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Types of diabetic neuropathy

Types of diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathies are classified as generalized and multifocal neuropathies. Generalized neuropathies are further classified as: Distal symmetric polyneuropathy Large fiber sensory Small fiber painful sensory Subclinical neuropathy Acute painful diabetic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy   Multifocal neuropathies are also further classified as: Compressive focal neuropathies Carpal tunnel syndrome, Ulnar neuropathy Peroneal neuropathy Noncompressive focal and multifocal neuropathies Diabetic amyotrophy Mononeuritis multiplex Cranial neuropathies oral, sciatic, ulnar, peroneal neuropathies Truncal neuropathies

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Epidemiology of Diabetic neuropathy

Epidemiology (Occurrence of diabetic neuropathy in different groups) Epidemiological studies suggest that prevalence of neuropathy in diabetic patients is 30% in hospital patients and 20% in patients living in communities.1 Approximately, about 60–70% of the people with diabetes suffer from neuropathy and the onset can be at any time in life. A recent study revealed that about 7% of the patients had neuropathy on diagnosis of diabetes and 50% of the diabetic neuropathy patients were among people who had diabetes for more than 25 years. In other words, the incidence…

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Diabetic neuropathy: Symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment

Introduction to diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy is a complication of long-standing diabetes, which affects the nerves of the body.1 Diabetic neuropathy can affect all the tissues and the organs of the body. Initially, symptoms cannot be observed, but later pain, numbness or loss of feeling in hands, arms, feet and legs can be observed. Treatments are given to subside the symptoms. The key to management of this disorder is adequate control of the blood sugar levels.  Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy depend on the kind the nerves…

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Role of Insulin in Managing Blood Sugar

Role of Insulin in Managing Blood Sugar Diabetes is a debilitating illness that requires lifelong treatment. The American Diabetes Association has recommended insulin therapy only when medical and/or nutritional therapy fails to maintain the blood glucose levels.1, 2 Role of insulin in normal cases Insulin plays a vital role in regulation of glucose metabolism. Principal function of insulin is to control the uptake and utilization of glucose in peripheral tissues through the glucose transport. Insulin regulates sugar in blood stream after meals. Sugar is the primary source of energy required…

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